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Korea's Position on Dokdo

Dokdo, Beautiful Island of Korea

Q&A on Dokdo

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  • Questions and Answers on Dokdo
  • The following 15 questions and answers provide clear and accurate explanations as to why Dokdo is an integral part of Korea’s territory, historically, geographically, and under international law.
question1
1How do early Korean government publications describe Dokdo?
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Numerous early Korean government publications mention Dokdo, which demonstrates that Korea has long recognized and governed Dokdo as Korean territory.

Some of the most notable records pertaining to Dokdo in early Korean government publications are listed below.

Sejong Sillok Jiriji (1454)

Sejong Sillok, Jiriji (1454)
(Geography Section of the Annals of King Sejong’s Reign)

Translation
The two islands of Usan [Dokdo] and Mureung [Ulleungdo] are located in the middle of the sea due east of the hyeon [Uljin county].
The two islands are not far apart from each other and are visible on a clear day. They were called Usan-guk or Ulleungdo during the Silla period.

Original Text
于山武陵二島在縣正東海中
二島相去不遠 風日淸明 則可望見 新羅時 稱于山國 一云鬱陵島
Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam

Sinjeung Dongguk Yeoji Seungnam (1531)
(Revised and Augmented Edition of the Survey of the Geography of Korea)

Translation
Usando [Dokdo] and Ulleungdo
They are also called Mureung or Ureung. The two islands are located in the middle of the sea due east of the hyeon [Uljin county].

Original Text
于山島 鬱陵島
一云武陵 一云羽陵 二島在縣正東海中
Dongguk Munheon Bigo (1770)

Dongguk Munheon Bigo (1770)
(Reference Compilation of Documents on Korea)

Translation
Usando [Dokdo] and Ulleungdo are two different islands
Of these two islands, one is Usan…
According to Yeojiji [Geography of Korea], it is said that Ulleung and Usan are both territories of Usan-guk and Usan is what the Japanese refer to as Matsushima [old Japanese name for Dokdo].

Original Text
于山島 鬱陵島..
二島一卽于山..
輿地志云 鬱陵∙于山皆于山國地 于山則倭所謂松島也
Man'gi Yoram (1808)

Man'gi Yoram (1808)
(Manual of State Affairs for the Monarch)

Translation
Ulleungdo is located in the middle of the sea due east of Uljin.
According to Yeojiji [Geography of Korea], it is said that Ulleung and Usan are both territories of Usan-guk and Usan is what the Japanese refer to as Matsushima [old Japanese name for Dokdo].

Original Text
鬱陵島在蔚珍正東海中..
輿地志云 鬱陵于山皆于山國地 于山則倭所謂松島也
Jeungbo Munheon Bigo (1908)

Jeungbo Munheon Bigo (1908)
(Revised and Augmented Reference Compilation of Documents on Korea)

Translation
Usando [Dokdo] and Ulleungdo are two different islands.
Of these two islands, one is Usan.
They have now become Uldo-gun (add.)

Original Text
于山島鬱陵島..
二島一卽芋山 續今爲鬱島郡
question2
2What does the Inshū Shichō Gakki (Records on Observations in Oki Province), one of the earliest Japanese texts referring to Dokdo, say about the island?
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Inshū Shichō Gakki (Records on Observations in Oki Province), 1667, is one of the earliest Japanese texts that mention Matsushima (the former Japanese name for Dokdo). It was written by Toyonobu Saitō, a local official of Izumo (eastern part of today’s Shimane prefecture), Japan. It describes Dokdo as follows:

Inshū Shichō Gakki (Records on Observations in Oki Province)

Inshū Shichō Gakki
Translation
The two islands [Ulleungdo and Dokdo], which are uninhabited, are located towards Goryeo [Korea] in the same way that Unshu [eastern part of today’s Shimane prefecture] is located towards Inshu [Oki Islands].
Therefore, Inshu [Oki Islands] shall mark Japan’s northwesternmost boundary.

Original Text
此二島 無人之地 見高麗 如自雲州望隱州 然則日本乾地
以此州爲限矣

The description above shows that the Oki Islands marked Japan’s northwesternmost boundary and that Dokdo was not included within the scope of Japan’s territory.

question3
3How is Dokdo portrayed in early Japanese maps?
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Dokdo does not appear in early maps commissioned by the Japanese government. For instance, Dokdo is missing from the Dainihon Enkai Yochi Zenzu (Maps of Japan’s Coastal Areas), 1821, a famous collection government-commissioned maps made from actual surveys by Tadataka Inō as per orders from the shogunate during the Edo period. Dokdo’s absence in these government-commissioned maps reflects the Japanese government’s recognition of Dokdo as non-Japanese territory.

The Kaisei Nihon Rotei Zenzu (Revised Complete Map of Japanese Lands and Roads), first published in 1779, has been presented by the government of Japan as an attempt to prove its territorial sovereignty over Dokdo. This map, produced by Sekisui Nagakubo, a Confucian scholar of the Edo period, instead, reveals that Ulleungdo and Dokdo are recognized by Japan as foreign territories.

Kaisei Nihon Yochi Rotei Zenzu (Second Edition, 1791)

Kaisei Nihon yochi Rotei Zenzu  (Second Edition, 1791)
  • Translation
  • Takeshima [Ulleungdo], also known as Isotakeshima
  • Matsushima [Dokdo]
  • The two islands are located towards Goryeo [Korea] in the same way that Unshu [eastern part of today’s Shimane prefecture] is located towards Inshu [Oki Islands of Japan].
  • Original Text
  • 竹島 一云磯竹島
  • 松島
  • 見高麗猶雲州望隱州

Furthermore, a quote from Inshū Shichō Gakki (Records on Observations in Oki Province) indicated on the map next to Dokdo (Matsushima) and Ulleungdo, reflects the understanding of Inshū Shichō Gakki that the Oki Islands form Japan’s northwesternmost boundary.

This is also clear from the fact that Ulleungdo (Takeshima) and Dokdo (Matsushima) are presented differently from Japanese territories in the map’s first edition as well as in the subsequent official editions: Ulleungdo and Dokdo, like mainland Joseon (Korea), are not colored and are positioned outside the longitudinal and latitudinal lines.

question4
4What is the Tottori-han’s Submission, which revealed that Dokdo was not Japanese territory at the time of the Ulleungdo Dispute between Korea and Japan?
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A diplomatic row between Korea and Japan erupted in 1693 concerning the passage of Japanese fishermen to Ulleungdo (the Ulleungdo Dispute). On December 24, 1695, the Edo shogunate sent an inquiry to the Tottori-han (feudal clan of Tottori) asking whether Ulleungdo belonged to the Tottori-han, and whether there were other islands under the Tottori-han’s jurisdiction.

Translation
1. Since when has Takeshima [Ulleungdo], which belongs to Inshu and Hakushu [Inaba and Hoki: today’s Tottori
    prefecture], been under the jurisdiction of the two states [Inaba and Hoki]?
1. Apart from Takeshima [Ulleungdo], are there any other islands that belong to the two states [Inaba and Hoki]?

Original Text
一. 因州伯州江付候竹島は、いつの頃より両国江附属候哉...
一. 竹島の外両国江附属の島有之候哉

The next day, on December 25, the Tottori-han responded to the effect that Ulleungdo and Dokdo were not territories of Japan as follows: “As for Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and Matsushima [Dokdo], neither belongs to the two states [Inaba and Hoki: today’s Tottori prefecture] nor are there any other islands belonging to these two states.”

Translation
1. Takeshima [Ulleungdo] is not an island that belongs to Inaba and Hoki [today’s Tottori prefecture].
1. As for Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and Matsushima [Dokdo], neither belongs to the two states [Inaba and Hoki]
    nor are there any other islands belonging to these two states.

Original Text
一. 竹島は因幡伯耆附属にては無御座候...
一. 竹島松島其外両国江附属の島無御座候事

After thus confirming Ulleungdo and Dokdo’s jurisdictional status, the Edo shogunate cancelled the “passage license to Takeshima [Ulleungdo]” on January 28, 1696, prohibiting further passage to Ulleungdo.

question5
5What is the significance of An Yong-bok’s activities with regard to Dokdo?
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An Yong-bok, who lived during the reign of King Sukjong of the Joseon dynasty, made two trips to Japan, the first of which was against his own will in 1693 when he was captured by the Japanese in Ulleungdo. The 1693 kidnapping of An Yong-bok triggered the Ulleungdo Dispute between Korea and Japan. The kidnapping is significant because the jurisdictional status of Ulleungdo and Dokdo was confirmed in the course of the diplomatic negotiations that ensued.

Regarding An Yong-bok’s second trip to Japan in 1696, a record of An Yong-bok’s statement can be found in the Sukjong Sillok (Annals of King Sukjong’s Reign). It is recorded that An Yong-bok told the Japanese fishermen he encountered in Ulleungdo that “Matsushima is Jasando [Dokdo] which is Korean territory” and that he went over to Japan to lodge a protest against Japan’s encroachment on the Korean territories of Ulleungdo and Dokdo.

An Yong-bok’s journeys to Japan are recorded not only in Korean but also in Japanese documents, including Takeshima Kiji (Records of Takeshima), Takeshima Tokai Yurai Kinuki Gaki (Copy of Excerpts from Record of a Trip to Takeshima), Inpu Nenpyo (Chronology of Inaba Province), and Takeshimako (Notes on Takeshima).

Particularly noteworthy is a historical document discovered recently in 2005 in Japan entitled “Genroku Kyu Heishinen Chosenbune Chakugan Ikkan No Oboegaki” (Memorandum on the Arrival of a Boat from Joseon in 1696 – a report on An Yong-bok’s visit to the Oki Islands drafted by an official of the island). According to the report, An Yong-bok stated that Ulleungdo and Dokdo belonged to Gangwon-do, which corroborates the information in the Sukjong Sillok (Annals of King Sukjong’s Reign).

Genroku Kyu Heishinen Chosenbune Chakugan Ikkan No Oboegaki

Genroku Kyu Heishinen Chosenbune Chakugan Ikkan No Oboegaki
  • Translation
  • In this province lie Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and Matsushima [Dokdo].
  • Original Text
  • 此道中 竹嶋松嶋有之
question6
6What is the Repatriation Policy set forth by the government of Joseon (Korea)?
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The government of Joseon dispatched officials to Ulleungdo for the evacuation of the island’s residents to the mainland. This is known as the Repatriation Policy.

This was one of the island policies adopted by the government of Joseon considering the risks of pillage by Japanese pirates on Joseon’s islands, not an act of relinquishing Joseon’s sovereignty over Ulleungdo.

This is evidenced by the fact that the Joseon government continued to exercise sovereignty over Ulleungdo by dispatching officials to the islands. In the early Joseon period, special government agents (sunsimgyeongchagwan) were dispatched to Ulleungdo. During the reign of King Sukjong, the Joseon government implemented a government patrol and inspection system whereby officials were regularly dispatched to Ulleungdo and other such places. The dispatch of officials continued until the system was abolished in 1895.

question7
7What is the Dajōkan Order of 1877, by which the Meiji government officially confirmed that Dokdo was not Japanese territory?
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In the course of a land registry project during the Meiji period, the Ministry of Home Affairs sent “an Inquiry on Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and one other Island [Dokdo] in the East Sea as regards the Land Registry Project” to the Dajōkan (Grand Council of State), Japan’s highest decision-making body at the time. The Ministry of Home Affairs wanted to determine whether the said islands were to be included in the project.

The Dajōkan concluded that Ulleungdo and Dokdo did not belong to Japan following the diplomatic negotiations between the Edo shogunate and the Joseon (Korean) government (the Ulleungdo Dispute). Thereupon, the Dajōkan issued a directive to the Ministry of Home Affairs in March 1877. The directive states, “Regarding Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and one other island [Dokdo]…bear in mind that our country [Japan] has nothing to do with them.” This is the Dajōkan Order of 1877.

Dajōkan Order of 1877Isotakeshima Ryakuzu (Simplified Map of Takeshima)

Dajōkan Order of 1877 / Isotakeshima ryakuzu
Translation
March 20, 10th year of Meiji
[The Ministry of Home Affairs], having claimed that it has been informed that Japan has nothing to do with these islands, through diplomatic correspondences between the old government (Edo Shogunate) and Joseon ever since people of Joseon set foot on the island in the 5th year of the Genroku (1692), to address your inquiry we propose to issue the following:

Directive:
Regarding Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and one other island [Dokdo] about which an inquiry was submitted, bear in mind that our country [Japan] has nothing to do with them.

Original Text
明治十年三月廿日
別紙内務省伺日本海内竹嶋外一嶋地籍編纂之件
右ハ元禄五年朝鮮人入嶋以来旧政府該国ト往復之末遂ニ本邦関係無之相聞候段申立候上ハ伺之趣御聞置左之通御指令相成可然哉此段相伺候也

御指令按
伺之趣竹島外一嶋之義本邦関係無之義ト可相心得事

Along with its note of inquiry, the Ministry of Home Affairs sent Isotakeshima Ryakuzu (Simplified Map of Takeshima(Ulleungdo) – Japan used to refer to Ulleungdo as Isotakeshima) as a reference. Given that Takeshima (Ulleungdo) and Matsushima (Dokdo) appear on the map, it is evident that Dokdo is the “one other island” referred to in the phrase “Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and one other island” in the Dajōkan Order of 1877.

The Dajōkan Order of 1877 clearly demonstrates the Japanese government’s understanding that the status of Ulleungdo and Dokdo had been confirmed by the conclusion of the Ulleungdo Dispute between the Edo shogunate and the Joseon government in the 17th century.

It also mentions of “how Takeshima [Ulleungdo] and Matsushima [Dokdo] have come under Joseon’s jurisdiction” in “Chosenkoku Kōsai Shimatsu Naitansho” (Report on Past Interactions with Joseon). This report, drafted by Hakubo Sada and a team of officials based on their inspection of Joseon, was submitted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1870, seven years before the Dajōkan Order of 1877. It reveals the fact that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at the time regarded the two islands as Joseon’s territory.

question8
8What is the Imperial Decree No. 41 of 1900, by which the Emperor of Korea placed Dokdo under the jurisdiction of Ulleungdo?
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In the late 19th century, various problems arose in Ulleungdo, including illegal logging by the Japanese. The government of the Korean Empire demanded that the Japanese government order the withdrawal of the illegal loggers. The Korean Empire also decided to strengthen laws pertaining to the local administration of Ulleungdo.

On October 24, 1900, the Uijeongbu (State Council) decided that “Ulleungdo shall be renamed Uldo” and “the post of inspector [dogam] shall be promoted to county magistrate [gunsu].” The changes were approved by the Emperor on October 25, 1900 and published as Imperial Decree No. 41 in the government’s official gazette on October 27, 1900.

Article 2 of Imperial Decree No. 41 stipulates that “as regards the districts, all of Ulleungdo as well as Jukdo and Seokdo [Dokdo] shall be placed under the jurisdiction of Uldo-gun (Uldo county),” explicitly including Dokdo among the districts under the jurisdiction of Uldo-gun (Uldo county).

Imperial Decree No. 41

Imperial Decree No. 41
Translation
(Imperial Decree No. 41) The Renaming of Ulleungdo to Uldo and the promotion of the post of inspector [dogam] to county magistrate [gunsu]
Article 1. Ulleungdo shall be renamed Uldo and shall fall under the jurisdiction of Gangwon-do [Gangwon
province].
The post of inspector [dogam] shall be promoted to county magistrate [gunsu] and incorporated into
officialdom, and the county shall be a class 5 county.
Article 2. The county office shall be located in Taehadong, and as regards its districts, all of Ulleungdo as well as
Jukdo and Seokdo [Dokdo] shall be placed under the jurisdiction of Uldo-gun (Uldo county).

Original Text
(勅令第四十一號) 鬱陵島를 鬱島로 改稱하고 島監을 郡守로 改正한
第一條 → 鬱陵島를 鬱島라 改稱하야 江原道에 附屬하고 島監을 郡守로 改正하야 官制中에 編入하
郡等은 五等으로 할
第二條 → 郡廳位寘난台霞洞으로 定하고 區域은 鬱陵全島와 竹島 · 石島랄 管轄할

As such, the Imperial Decree No. 41 clearly demonstrates the historical fact that the government of the Korean Empire exercised its sovereignty over Dokdo as a part of Ulleungdo.

question9
9What was the backdrop against which Japan issued the Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 of 1905, and does this notice carry legal validity under international law?
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Japan had been at war with Russia over its interests in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula since 1904. Japan’s attempt at incorporating Dokdo into its own territory through the Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 in 1905 was aimed at meeting its military needs in the face of possible maritime clashes with Russia in the East Sea.

In a related Japanese historical document it is recorded that the territorial incorporation of Dokdo was being pursued based on the opinion of a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official that “building a watchtower and installing radio transmissions or submarine telegraph communication systems on Takeshima [Dokdo] would give us an advantage in terms of monitoring enemy ships.” Yozaburo Nakai, who petitioned for the territorial incorporation of Dokdo, had initially perceived Dokdo as Korean territory. Also, an official of Japan’s Ministry of Home Affairs stated, “… the disadvantages of arousing the suspicion that Japan harbors the ambition to annex Korea outweigh the advantages … by seizing the barren rocks [Dokdo] where not a blade of grass grows and which are considered to belong to Korea…” This points to the Japanese government’s recognition of Dokdo as Korean territory.

In February 1904, Japan compelled the Korean Empire to sign the Korea-Japan Protocol to ensure unlimited access to Korean territory in the execution of the Russo-Japanese War. Japan also coerced the Korean government to appoint Japanese and other non-Korean nationals as advisors through the First Korea-Japan Agreement in August 1904. In effect, Japan was systematically implementing its plan to take over Korea, and Dokdo was the first Korean territory to fall victim to Japanese aggression against Korea.

As is thus shown, the Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 was part of Japan’s systematic plan to undermine Korea’s territorial integrity. Japan’s attempt to incorporate Dokdo into its own territory was an illegal act that infringed upon Korea’s undeniable sovereignty over the island, which had been established over a long period of time. Accordingly, the Shimane Prefecture Public Notice No. 40 is null and void under international law.

question10
10What did Sim Heung-taek, the county magistrate of Uldo-gun (Ulleungdo), report to the acting governor of Gangwon-do regarding Dokdo in 1906?
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A Japanese survey team comprised of officials and civilians from the Shimane Prefecture visited Ulleungdo and informed Sim Heung-taek, the county magistrate of Uldo-gun(Uldo county) that Dokdo had been incorporated into Japanese territory.

On April 29, 1906, Yi Myeong-rae, the county magistrate of Chuncheon-gun(Chuncheon County) and the acting governor of Gangwon-do(Gangwon province) reported the matter to the Uijeongbu(State Council of the Korean Empire).

Special Report

Special Report
Translation
Sim Heung-taek, the county magistrate of Uldo-gun(Uldo county) reported to me [the acting governor of Gangwon province] as follows: Dokdo, which is under the jurisdiction of this county, is some 100 li [old Korean unit of measurement] out at sea. A ship docked at Dodongpo [Dodong Harbor], Uldo-gun, approximately at the 5th hour [7-9 a.m.] on the 4th day of this month [March 28]. A group of Japanese government officials came to the county office and said, “We have come to inspect the islands as Dokdo has now become Japanese territory.” They first inquired on the number of households, size of the population, land area, and agricultural yield and then asked about the size of the staff and budget of the county office. They recorded the information as though they were undertaking a general survey [of the islands] and then left.

I thus report this matter for your consideration as it was brought to my attention.

Original Text
欝島郡守 沈興澤報告書內開에 本郡所屬獨島가 在於外洋百餘里 外 이삽더니 本月 初四日 辰時量에 輪船一雙이 來泊于郡內道洞浦 而日本官人 一行에 到于官舍하야 自云 獨島가 今爲日本領地 故로 視察次 來到이다 이온바... 先問戶總 ∙ 人口 ∙ 土地 ∙ 生産 多少하고 且問 人員 及經費 幾許 諸般事務을 以調査樣으로 錄去이압기 玆에 報告하오니 照亮하시믈 伏望等 因으로 准此 報告하오니 照亮하시믈 伏望

Thereupon, on May 10 of the same year, the Uijeongbu, the highest decision-making body of the Korean Empire, issued the following directive (Directive No. 3)

Directive No.3

Directive No.3
Translation
Directive No. 3
The submitted report has been read and given due consideration. The claim that Dokdo has become [Japanese] territory is completely groundless, so inquire again into the situation in the islands and the activities of the Japanese and submit an updated report.

Original Text
來報난 閱悉이고 獨島領地之說은 全屬無根하니 該島 形便과 日人 如何 行動을 更爲査報할

This shows that the county magistrate of Uldo-gun (Ulleungdo) continued to govern Dokdo in 1906 pursuant to Imperial Decree No. 41 issued in 1900.

question11
11What are the terms of the Cairo Declaration of 1943, which laid out the basic position of the Allied Powers on Japan’s territorial boundaries after World War II?
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In the Cairo Declaration (December 1, 1943), which laid out the basic position of the Allied Powers on Japan’s territorial boundaries after the end of World War II, it is stated that “Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed.”

The Cairo Declaration also confirms the independence of Korea as follows: “three great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent.”

Excerpt of the Cairo Declaration

Japan will also be expelled from all other territories which she has taken by violence and greed.
The aforesaid three great powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent.

The Potsdam Declaration of 1945, which Japan accepted as a condition of its surrender, reconfirms that “the terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out.”

question12
12What was the position of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers as regards Dokdo when World War II came to an end in 1945?
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After the end of World War II, the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers excluded Dokdo from those territories controlled and administered by Japan as mandated in its instruction in SCAPIN (Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers Index Number) 677 on January 29, 1946.

Paragraph 3 of the said instruction lists “the four main islands of Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku) and the approximately 1,000 smaller adjacent islands” as the territories of Japan and excludes “Utsuryo (Ullung) Island, Liancourt Rocks [Dokdo] and Quelpart (Saishu or Cheju) Island.”

SCAPIN-677 (January 29, 1946)

Governmental and Administrative Separation of Certain Outlying Areas from Japan

3. For the purpose of this directive, Japan is defined to include…excluding (a) Utsuryo (Ullung) island,
Liancourt Rocks and Quelpart (Saishu or Cheju) island...

SCAPIN-677 (January 29, 1946)

Moreover, SCAPIN 1033 prohibited Japanese vessels or personnel from coming within 12 nautical miles of Dokdo.

SCAPIN 1033 (June 22, 1946)

Area Authorized for Japanese Fishing and Whaling

3. (b) Japanese vessels or personnel thereof will not approach closer than twelve (12) miles to
Takeshima(37°15′ North Latitude, 131°53′ East Longitude) nor have any contact with said island.

question13
13What are the provisions of the 1951 Treaty of Peace with Japan regarding Dokdo?
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Article 2(a) of the Treaty of Peace with Japan of 1951 provides “Japan recognizing the independence of Korea, renounces all right, title and claim to Korea, including the islands of Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet.”

Relevant Part of the Treaty of Peace with Japan

Article 2
(a) Japan recognizing the independence of Korea, renounces all right, title and claim to Korea, including the
islands of Quelpart, Port Hamilton and Dagelet.

Of Korea’s some 3000 islands, the said article lists only Jejudo (Quelpart), Geomundo (Port Hamilton), and Ulleungdo (Dagelet) as examples. Therefore, the mere fact that Dokdo is not explicitly mentioned in the said article does not suggest that Dokdo is not included among those territories of Korea separated from Japan.

In consideration of the Allied Powers’ stance reflected in the Cairo Declaration of 1943 and SCAPIN 677 of 1946, it should be understood that Dokdo is included among the territories of Korea separated from Japan.

question14
14What was the Korean government's response to its Japanese counterpart's proposal in 1954 to refer the issue of Dokdo to the International Court of Justice (ICJ)?
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In 1954, when the government of Japan demanded that the matter of Dokdo be taken to the International Court of Justice (ICJ), the government of the Republic of Korea conveyed its views to the Japanese party as follows:

  • - The proposal of the government is nothing but another false attempt disguised in the form of judicial procedures. Korea has the territorial rights ab initio over Dokdo and sees no reason why she should seek the verification of such rights before any international court.
  • - As the Japanese government is no doubt well aware, the aggression took place gradually, culminating in the annexation of all of Korea into Japan in 1910. For all practical purposes, however, Japan had seized the power to control Korea in 1904 when Japan forced Korea to sign the so-called Korea-Japan Protocol and the First Agreement between Korea and Japan.
  • - Dokdo was the first Korean territory which fell victim to the Japanese aggression. Now, in view of the unreasonable and persistent claim of the Japanese government over Dokdo, the Korean people are seriously concerned that Japan might be repeating the same course of aggression. To Korea, Dokdo is not merely a tiny island in the East Sea. It is the symbol of Korean sovereignty.

The government of the Republic of Korea continues to maintain the same position.

question15
15How is the Republic of Korea exercising its sovereignty over Dokdo?
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The Republic of Korea holds legislative, administrative and judicial jurisdiction over Dokdo.

  • First, a Korean police force is stationed on Dokdo, patrolling the island.
  • Second, the Korean military defends the waters and skies of Dokdo.
  • Third, various laws and regulations including those specific to Dokdo have been enacted and implemented.
  • Fourth, a lighthouse and other government facilities have been established and are in operation on Dokdo.view
  • Fifth, Korean civilians are residing on Dokdo.

The government of the Republic of Korea will continue to protect the territorial integrity of Dokdo

dokdo image